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By Kim C., Kim S., Park M.

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1. Systematic Approach to the Design of Technical Systems and Products. VDI Society of Product Development, VDI 2221, pp. 7, August 1987. W. Product Design Methods and Practices; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1999. ; Poli, C. Engineering Design and Design for Manufacturing; Field Strone Publishers, Conway, MA, 1995. R. ; McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001; 22–30. McLellan, D. Understanding casting factors in aircraft components. Modern Casting October 1994, 21–24. ; Stephens, R. Fatigue Design Methods. Metal Fatigue in Engineering; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1980; 7–12.

In this approach, weak areas are strengthened by reinforcing them with additional material or by using composite materials. For example, steel, glass, or carbon fibers may be used to strengthen materials, such as concrete or plastic that are weak in tension. Since the stiffer material will carry more of the load, the reinforcing material should be stiffer than the reinforced material (the matrix). Also, to have an efficient composite material system, force flow must be such that each material in the system is subjected to stresses in its strongest direction.

Operational robustness refers to the design’s ability to tolerate variation in hard-to-control variables that influence the design function. Typically, these variables [1] are associated with the environment in which the design operates, [2] arise as the result of changes and degradations that occur over time and with use, or [3] occur due to variation from build to build manufactured under the same specifications. Examples of hard-to-control environmental variables that influence the design during use include temperature, humidity, external load, time rate of load application, type of use, and so forth.

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