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By Albert C. Baugh

A heritage of the English Language explores the linguistic and cultural improvement of English from the Roman conquest of britain to the current day to supply a complete assessment of the various elements of its background. This best-selling vintage textbook has been revised and up-to-date and encourages the reader to enhance either an realizing of present-day English and an enlightened angle towards the problems affecting the language this day. New gains of the 6th variation comprise: an extra bankruptcy titled 'English within the Twenty-first Century', which examines the way forward for English and different worldwide languages and comprises an evaluation of chinese language as an international language an in-depth remedy of phonological adjustments, reminiscent of the situation of the nice Vowel Shift as a bridge among center English and Renaissance English additional insurance of corpus linguistics, specifically for Renaissance English clean sections on accessory and sign up a brand new survey of the new debate among "creolists" and "neo-Anglicists" at the origins of African American Vernacular English. Balanced and wide-ranging, this textbook is a must-read for any scholar learning the background of the English language

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Some of the fugitives crossed over into Brittany. The remnants of this one-time extensive group of languages are everywhere losing ground at the present day. Spoken by minorities in France and the British Isles, these languages are faced with the competition of two languages of wider communication, and some seem destined not to survive this competition. Cornish became extinct in the eighteenth century, and Manx, once spoken by all the native inhabitants of the Isle of Man, has died out since World War II.

One other linguistic consideration that figured prominently in past discussions is worth citing because of its intrinsic interest. The branches of the Indo-European family fall into two well-defined groups according to the modification that certain consonants of the parent speech underwent in each. They are known as the centum and satem groups from the words for hundred in Latin and Avestan, respectively. The centum group includes the Hellenic, Italic, Germanic, and Celtic branches. To the satem group belong Indian, Iranian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, and Albanian.

159–60. 18 It has been argued that the traditional linguistic evidence in favor of the north European plain is sufficient to assume that the Kurgans migrated east at an early date. Goodenough, “The Evolution of Pastoralism and Indo-European Origins,” in Indo-European and IndoEuropeans, pp. 253–65. 19 A significant example is Colin Renfrew’s theory that reverses the direction of influence between the steppes and western Europe and sees the Indo-European culture spreading through the peaceful diffusion of agriculture rather than through conquest.

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