By Tolemariam Fufa
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Extra resources for A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic Languages
29c. ’ In (27) and (28) the causee is expressed as an oblique noun phrase; and it is preceded by the patient. Subject agreements are controlled by causers while object agreements are controlled by causees. However in (29a) and (29b), the causee is expressed as an oblique noun phrase but the patient that precedes the causee is not marked for definiteness and accusative case; consequently, the structure is ungrammatical. In such structures, if the patient is marked for definiteness and case, the causee could be expressed as an oblique object as shown in (29c).
For an explanation. The middle verb tästäkakkäl- ‘to be adjusted to; cut one’s hair,’ is a complex verb. The base of this verb is akkäl- ‘to be equal, to equal, to add, to extend’. This verb is a non-agentive intransitive verb. The impersonal passive/middle t(ä)-akkäl- ‘to be equal, to extend’ is formed by affixation of the tä- morpheme to the base of this verb. In fact the affixation can be accompanied by stem reduplication to derive the middle täkakkäl- ‘to be equal with someone’. The causative marking as- is prefixed to this middle base to derive the causative verb while further affixation of tä- to the base of the causative derives the middle verb.
In these forms the causative –isalternates with the verb to say jeɗ- ‘say’. Sound emission intransitive causatives include verbs such as korr-is- /korr jeɗ- ‘to moan’, č’all-is- / č’all jeɗ- ‘to be quiet’, girr-is / girr jeɗ- ‘to blaze’, etc. Ideophones can be used as verbs either by compounding them into the verb ‘to say’ or by verbalizing them through a causative suffix –is, CAUS1. Note that this de-ideophonic verbalizing causative is different in form from the de-adjectival verbalizer –(e)ess- CAUS3.