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By S J Sing, K S W Gregg

The central target of the second one variation of this ebook is still similar to that of the 1st variation: to provide a severe exposition of using the adsorption equipment for the evaluation of the outside zone and pore measurement distribution of finely divided and porous solids.

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Based on the material used they can be categorized into four groups, metal resistors, polysilicon resistors, diffusion resistors and well resistors. Both metal resistors and polysilicon resistors have low variation with voltage, but diffusion resistors and well resistors have a strong dependence on voltage. g. 10 to 80 milli-ohms per square. Because of such low resistance, metal resistors are usually used to track the metal resistance change over process and temperature. g. 300 to 500 ohms per square.

A pair of floating DC voltage sources is used to shift the input voltage down. 10. 11. With the floating voltage sources, a linear transconductor using constant sum of Vg,is achieved with good input common mode rejection. 10. 11. 3 Differential pair with mobility compensation The linear performance of the differential pair with constant sum of 6, is based on the square-law I-V characteristic of the MOSFET. In reality this square-law behavior deviates from the ideal behavior due to channel velocity saturation and mobility degradation.

M3 and M4 are cross-coupled with M1 and M2 with opposite inputs and shifted DC biases. The DC shift voltage VBis realized by NMOS source followers M5 and M6. 5. 2. Cross-coupled differential pair The linearity of the cross-coupled pairs is determined by the source followers. If a high impedance current source is provided to the source follower and% is much higher than the signal frequencies, VB is considered to be constant. Therefore, a linear current output is achieved. 3. Source degenerated transconductor Source degenerated resistors are often used to improve transconductors.

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