By James C. Lin
The goal of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in dwelling structures remains almost like prior volumes: so as to add a couple of major advances during this quarter of study to medical literature.
In normal, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic structures is frequency-dependent. in addition, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very diverse from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a distinct emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical functions of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. each one bankruptcy involves a accomplished presentation of an issue of present curiosity and transforming into value.
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Extra resources for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems
The models include a layer of vernix caseosa with an estimated thickness of about 2 mm. Variations in thickness of such a high-resistive layer will not affect the magnetic ﬁeld or electrical potential distribution at the surface [Stinstra, 2001]. Mouth umbilicus umbilicus Mouth Mouth Figure 19. Models that were used in the simulations of MCGs of fetuses in week 30 to term. Model VII Model V Mouth Fetal Magnetocardiography Y-dipole Z-dipole Model VII Model VI Model V Model IV X-dipole 35 Colorscale V/Am −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 Figure 20.
Mehtar M. , 1984, Normalisation of body impedance data: a theoretical study, Med Biol Eng Comput, 22:285–286. , Rosti D. , 1998, Prolongation of the QT interval and the sudden infant death syndrome, New Engl. J. , 338(24):1709–1714. , Butler J. , 1996, Hole’s Human Anatomy & Physiology. , Boston. , 2001, The reliability of the fetal magnetocardiogram, PhD thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands. G. J, 2002, The inﬂuence of fetoabdomenal tissues on fetal ECGs and MCGs, Arch. Physiol. , 110 (3): 165–176.
Some investigators claim that the vernix caseosa ﬁrst covers the fetus completely and that afterwards holes appear in the layer [Oostendorp, 1989]. This assumption is based on the fact that only in about 20 to 30 percent of the fetal ECGs measured in this period a usable recording is obtained in which fetal Rpeaks can be discerned. One hole is probably near the mouth. Simulations show that when one hole is present in the poorly conducting layer, it still conﬁnes the currents within the fetus. In order to obtain larger current densities in the volume outside the vernix caseosa at least two holes are needed, so that the currents induced by the fetal heart leave the fetus at one side and return at the other side.