By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray
(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content experiences fresh advancements within the box and their relevance for public well-being in constructing nations. offers reports from Asian, African, and Latin American international locations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the USA. Softcover.
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Additional info for Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries
This is important for defining air quality guidelines, and indirectly for creating air quality standards. The conventional approach has been to provide a guideline value based on the maximum level of exposure at which the great majority of people, even in sensitive groups, would not be expected to experience any adverse effects. Many users simply interpreted these guidelines’ values as if they were recommended standards, which pollution levels should not be allowed to exceed. If there is no such threshold, no single guideline value can be provided by WHO.
Health effects depend not only on dose but also on factors such as age, sex, whether the person smokes and on the existence of other diseases. Note: To understand the control pollution effectively it is necessary to understand the entire pathway from source to effect, although measurement and control can occur at any number of places along the pathway. 2 Environmental pathway Step 1: Sources–emissions – Although the type of source (dirty versus clean fuels, for example) gives some idea of hazard, a more valuable measure is the actual amount of pollution emitted.
Mercury enters the atmosphere through natural processes and industrial activities such as the mining and smelting of ores, burning of fossil fuels, smelting of metals, cement manufacture and waste disposal. Nickel is an element with low natural background concentrations. It enters the atmosphere due to the burning of oils, nickel mining and processing, and municipal waste incineration. AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CONTEXT 9 Air toxics In addition to the well recognized air pollutants, there are many tens of thousands of manufactured chemicals that may be present in indoor and outdoor air.